Commit 487adec8 authored by Alexandre Kaspar's avatar Alexandre Kaspar

Some of the weaving

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......@@ -111,8 +111,18 @@ For example, the cotton involves notably:
As for the special man-made "monofilament" yarns, they undergo one of two similar processes:
* Preform to fiber (see papers: [n1](https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-26561-8), [n2](https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11986-0)) consists in pulling on a block of carefully crafted material that is driven to its glass temperature. This process allows functional components to be inserted inside of the fiber.
* Done at [AFFOA](http://go.affoa.org/)
* Pellets to fiber processes typically material pellets that are then pulled into a fiber (e.g. [recycling plastics to fiber](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyF9MxlcItw) and 3d printing filament)
Notable applications include:
* [Optical fiber](https://www.thorlabs.com/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=6832#ad-image-0), typically pulled from a preform
* Recycling plastics into garment fiber
* 3D printing filament
<iframe width="560" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/AAczQv-WXZk" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
<iframe width="733" height="550" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/zyF9MxlcItw" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
......@@ -120,10 +130,77 @@ As for the special man-made "monofilament" yarns, they undergo one of two simila
### <a id="weaving">Weaving</a>
Terms:
* **Warp**: vertical threads (columns / wales), as many as needed to cover the width of the fabric
* **Weft**: horizontal thread (rows / courses), from one to multiple depending on the pattern
* **Shedding**: the creation of a *shed* under which the weft thread goes, by pulling a selection of warp threads up
* **Shuttle**: the device used to transfer the weft across the shed
* **Heddle**: the individual eyelet through which each warp thread is pulled (up or not)
* **Beating-up**: the process of compacting the weft to create a woven structure with correct tension
<a data-caption="Alexandre Kaspar 2019">
<img src="images/topology_woven.png" width="400" />
</a>
Weaving is a parallel process through which one or multiple weft threads are woven in between columns of warp threads.
At its core, the process consists of:
1. Creating a shed by pulling a selection of warp threads up
2. Inserting the weft across the shed
3. Beating up the weft to compact it (and ensure its good tension)
There are many variants of *looms* (the machine through which weaving is done) with various ways to select the warp threads (either in groups or individually),
as well as various ways to transfer the weft across the shed (e.g., manually or with a flying shuttle).
<a data-caption="The history and principles of weaving by hand and by power, Barlow, 1879, p. 82">
<img src="images/weaving_diagram.png" height="400" />
</a>
For an introduction to weaving, see "The history and principles of weaving by hand and by power", Barlow, 1879.
Available on [archive.org](https://archive.org/details/historyprinciple00barluoft/).
For a more modern reference, see "Shuttleless weaving machines", Talavasek, 1981.
<a data-caption="Heddles, by Loggie-log, public domain" href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3635894">
<img src="images/weaving_heddles.jpg" height="400" />
</a>
One inconvenience of weaving machines is that they require a complex setup to prepare the warp threads (easily thousands of them) and their tensioning, before anything can be done.
<a data-caption="(c) Alex Zimmer, 2018">
<img src="images/weaving_warping_machine.jpg" width="800" />
</a>
### <a id="lace">Lace</a>
### <a id="knitting">Knitting</a>
### <a id="crochet">Crochet</a>
### <a id="knotting">Knotting</a>
The art of making knots.
Knitting / crochet, not with loops, but with knots.
## Credits
This recitation was crafted by [Alexander Zimmer](https://www.kniterate.com/about/), [Carmel Snow](http://www.carmelsnow.com/) and [Alexandre Kaspar](http://w-x.ch).
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