Commit d970f540 authored by Alexandre Kaspar's avatar Alexandre Kaspar

Fiber processes

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......@@ -53,19 +53,66 @@ For a good coverage of the history of textiles over the ages, see:
Textile has primarily be done by women in many countries.
Given all the related discriminations, it has received little branding or hype until recently.
<img src="images/intro_industries.jpg" width="800" />
<a data-caption="(c) Carmen Snow 2019">
<img src="images/intro_industries.jpg" width="800" />
</a>
Textile involves many complex and very interesting engineering and design processes.
It is part of many industries, not just fashion.
## <a id="processes">Textiles Processes</a>
The first part of textile making starts with the creation of the fiber, which we briefly cover before going over various different processes of interest.
### <a id="Fiber">
At the core of any fabric is fiber.
Fiber comes in very different [types](https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/materials-science/textile-fiber) (e.g. natural vs man-made) as well as various types of [packagings](http://evinok.com/?p=4309) (skeins, balls, cones ...).
Common fiber [types](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber) include:
* Natural fibers:
* Animal (protein-based): silk, wool
* Vegetal (cellulose-based): cotton, flax, ramle, jute
* Mineral fibers: [asbestos](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos)
* Man-made fibers:
* Transformed cellulose: rayon, acetate
* Synthetic polymers: poly-acrylontrile, polyurethane, polyalctic, polyamide, polyester
* Inorganic fibers: made of metal, ceramics, glass or carbon
<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_manufacturing">
<img src="images/fiber_cotton.jpg" width="800" />
</a>
Except for silk and some man-made fibers (i.e. monofilaments), fiber is typically short and chaotic.
This means that before using it, we typically need to process it to make it coherent and ready for manufacturing.
There can be many processing steps to prepare the fiber.
For example, the cotton involves notably:
* [Carding](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carding) to straighten and separate fibers
* [Combing](https://trc-leiden.nl/trc-needles/tools/fibre-preparation/combing-and-carding) to parallize fiber (see [this video](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hjimjv-b2aE))
* Spinning ([instructables](https://www.instructables.com/id/spinning-yarn/)) to create small yarn plies that can be woven or knitted
* As well as twisting, winding, dying and steaming
<video src="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pyMh0Ll-8k" width="800"></video>
<iframe width="1280" height="720" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/9pyMh0Ll-8k" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe>
As for the special man-made "monofilament" yarns, they undergo one of two similar processes:
* Preform to fiber (see papers: [n1](https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-26561-8), [n2](https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-11986-0)) consists in pulling on a block of carefully crafted material that is driven to its glass temperature. This process allows functional components to be inserted inside of the fiber.
* Pellets to fiber processes typically material pellets that are then pulled into a fiber (e.g. [recycling plastics to fiber](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zyF9MxlcItw) and 3d printing filament)
### <a id="weaving">Weaving</a>
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