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# Wire plotting membrane speakers
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## Overview

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<img src= "img/speaker-microscope.jpg" height=400px>

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## Wilcard week and first prototypes

This project started during wildcard week of How to make almost anything, MAS863.18.  Work from that week is documented <a href='wildcard.md'>here</a>.
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<img src= "img/wireplotting26.jpg" height=400px>
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We simulated several arrangements to drive a membrane for a speaker.  Coil-coil intereractions are nice because they don't require permanent magnets, but the force produced in our geometry is very small (~1000x smaller) compared to that of coil-magnet interactions.
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<img src="img/coil-coil-flux.png" height=200px>
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<img src="img/magnet-coil-flux.png" height=200px>
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Given this, we decided to use arrays of neodymium disc magnets, which are cheap and easily available in a variety of dimensions.  Planar magnetic speakers often use flat bar magnets, but these are more expensive and difficult to arrange on the substrate.  The design challenge is to route copper coils to perpendicularly cut the line segments between all adjacent magnets, while minimizing the additional run (wasted copper) and maintain symmetry of the membrane (so the deformation modes aren't deformed).  Below is a design with three-fold symmetry that can be extended to an abritrary radius by extending the spiraling pattern.

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<img src="img/hex-spiral-screenshot.png" height=300px>
<img src="img/hex-spiral-coil.jpg" height=300px>
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Below is plotting of this pattern onto 1 mil kapton tape.

<img src="img/hex-spiral-plotting.mp4" height=400px>

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Two membranes and the .015" backiron plates:

<img src= "img/speakers-green-with-plates.jpg" height=400px>

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First test:
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<img src="img/out_twospacers.mp4" height=400px>

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Stereo:
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<img src="img/output.mp4" height=400px>

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I analyzed the impedance as a function of frequency (using the handy Analog Discover 2 USB oscilloscope), shown below.  We can see the fundamental resonance a bit above 100 Hz (note: next prototype should make this lower).

<img src="img/waveforms-impedance-1.png" height=400px>


## Coil layer improvements

The pattern for this speaker stressed my coil laying tool in ways that my previous prototypes hadn't, and the the applicator tip became a point of failure.  I'm working on two improvements to this.  First, the software correction for tool offset from rotational axis has been a pain to keep calibrated and is a source of error when pushing the limits of radius of curvature.  To get around this, I designed a mechanical correction in two axes for the tool center point using 3/16-100 microadjustment screws.  By using these adjustments and measuring the output with my zund microscope tool, I can dial in the alignment to about 10 microns.

<img src="img/coil-layer-adjustment.jpg" height=400px>

Second, the winding paths of this speaker membrane put torque and axial load on the single 3mm OD ball bearing (with 1mm balls inside!) that I had been using to apply the wire.  After a few jobs, this roller would have the characteristic "crunch" of an overloaded bearing.  I owe an offering to St. Venant.  To fix this, I made a small roller applicator, held by two 3mm OD bearings.  This effectively limits the torque seen by the bearings and doubles the effective radial load (because there are two instead of one).  It also allows me to experiment with different applicator profile shapes.  Two are shown below, on a penny for scale.

<img src="img/coil-layer-bearing.jpg" height=400px>
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