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# Roller Coaster Gantries
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These are machine design elements that we use at the CBA when we're spinning up custom machines: they're parametric, aim to be reconfigurable, and we can make them in the lab with a minimum set of stock hardware.
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## Machines Using RCT Gantries

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[Mother Mother, a generalist](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/jakeread/mothermother)  
[Claystack, a ceramics 3d printer](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/jakeread/claystack)  
[the Madison Park Vocational Machine, for high schools](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/jakeread/mpvmachine)  
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# Usage 
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This repository should help you figure out how to build your own axis: it contains some explanatory drawings, videos, as well as CAD files and Bills of Materials for various design elements. 
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A typical machine-level workflow is described [for machineweek, at this link](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/jakeread/machineweek-2018). 
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![](video/SEQ-fusion-parametric-enc.mp4)

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First, find the model you'd like to start with on this page and download it, or clone the whole repo. The ```.f3d``` files are parametric Fusion 360 files. Files here are tuned for material thickness choices - but the exact thickness of your material can be tuned in the model: i.e. the 0.375" HDPE model will also work for ~ 8 - 11mm HDPE if you're working with sensible units in another country. 

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In Fusion, you can open this file up and use (from the top menu)
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``` Modify >> Change Paremeters ```

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Each of these models should have some parameters starred, these are what you'll want to configure. Go ahead and set axis lengths and material thicknesses according to what you're doing. 

There are also two sets of hole patterns in the last two 'groups' of features on the feature history bar. One puts a 20mm square grid on top of the axis, the other on the bottom. You can leave these in, or customize them, or add whatever mounting-to-the-next-bit design you'd like.

When you're satisfied, you can export the model as a .step file, using the file menu, to prep it for fabrication.
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``` File >> Export ``` 

Make sure to change 'type' to .step, and check the 'save to my computer' box. Now you're ready to import it into another assembly.

**Alternately,** you can save the changes to a new file and import that model into another Fusion 360 Assembly. 

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## Gantry for NEMA17 Motor, 0.25" ALU

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![n17sofar](images/n17-assem.jpg)
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Smaller Gantries. Uses 45* bearings in 3DP blocks, with one set riding on flexures for smooth preloaded motion. Cut rail on WJ with high cut quality.
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![n17sofar](images/n17-with-n23.jpg)
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Ostensibly easy to cut on a laser with 1/4" Acrylic for very-easy machine-making. 
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This is ready to be applied in the [Little Rascal](http://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/jakeread/littlerascal) [(see also)](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_spacecraft_in_the_Culture_series) project. My last thoughts are:
- could abandond servo-belt type, not enough motor torque to overcome friction at this size. re-up on that for N23, with steel belts, for milling and other higher force applications.
- in abandoning this, belt tensioning becomes easy: make simple, small stops and apply tension at the motor. become smaller. 
- I would be interested in a motor-hanging-from-end-of-plate flying belt type at this size, for very fast applications (lasers). 
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### BOM for N17 
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Type | Size | QTY | Where Used | Vendor | PN
--- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- 
Flat Head Thread-Forming | No. 6, 1/2" | 20 | - | McMaster | 95893A255
Bearing Shims | 5x10x0.5mm | 22 | - | McMaster | 98089A375
Shoulder Bolts | 5x10xM4 | 2 | Pulleys | McMaster | 92981A030 
Shoulder Bolts | 5x6xM4 | 8 | Rollers | McMaster | 92981A146
Heat-Set M4 Tapered Inserts | M4 | 10 | - | McMaster | 94180A351
Heat-Set M3 Tapered Insert | M3 | 1 | - | McMaster | 94180A331
Various M3 SHCS | - | 5 | - | - | - 
625ZZ Bearings | 5x16x5mm | 12 | - | VXB | [link](https://www.vxb.com/20-625ZZ-5x16x5-Metal-5mm-Bore-Miniature-p/kit250.htm) or McMaster 6153K113
20T or 16T GT2 Pulley | 10mm or Wider, 5mm Bore | 1 | - | Amazon or SDP/SI | [Amazon Link](https://www.amazon.com/uxcell-Aluminum-Timing-Synchronous-Printer/dp/B072M2CM1W/)
10mm (or 9mm) Wide GT2 Belt | Find Steel-Core for Stiffness! | 1 | - | Amazon or SDP/SI | [Amazon Link](https://www.amazon.com/BALITENSEN-Black-Timing-Printer-Machine/dp/B07F2X236H/)
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## Gantry for NEMA23 Motor, 0.375" HDPE

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![RCTN23-0375HDPE](images/RCTN23-hdpe-img.jpg)
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![RCTN23-0375HDPE](images/RCTN23-hdpe-dwg.png)

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#### [RCTN23-0375HDPE Fusion CAD File](cad/RCTN23-0375HDPE_v5.f3d)

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#### [pulleys-that-are-the-wrong-size-hotfix](cad/nema23-8mm-to-6-35mm-bushing.stl)

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#### BOM N23 0375HDPE
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Type | Size | QTY | Where Used | McMaster PN
--- | --- | --- | --- | --- 
Button Head Thread-Forming | No. 6, 3/4" | 10 + (4 * rail tab) (lots) | Connecting Lap and Tab HDPE, Belt Blocks, Chassis | 99512A265
Button Head Thread-Forming | No. 6, 1/2" | 2 | Belt Blocks | 99512A259
Flat Head Thread-Forming | No. 6, 3/4" | 8 | Flush Mounting HDPE | 95893A258
SHCS | M3x40 | 2 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 91292A024
SHCS | M3x30 | 2 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 91292A022
Belleville Washer | 3.1mm ID | 24 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 96445K157
Locknut | M3, Nylon | 6 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 90576A102
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Locknut | M5, Nylon | 4 | Connecting Nema 23 Motor | 93625A200
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SHCS | M5x10 | 1 | Connecting Nema 23 Motor | 91292A124
SHCS | M5x16 | 3 | Nema 23 Motor through tensioning arcs | 91292A126
Shoulder Screw | 8mm Shoulder x 8mm x M6 | 10 | Guide Roller Shaft | 92981A198
Shoulder Screw | 8mm Shoulder x 16mm x M6 | 2 | Belt Guide Roller Shaft | 92981A202
Bearing Shim | 8mm ID x 10mm OD x 1mm Thick | 38 | Roller Separation | 98089A381 
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Less Expensive Bearing Shim | 5/16" Screw Oversize Washer | 38 | Roller Separation | 91090A110
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## Gantry for NEMA23 Motor, 0.25" Aluminum
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![RCTN23-025ALU](images/RCTN23-alu-img.jpg)

![RCTN23-025ALU](images/RCTN23-alu-dwg.png)
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#### [RCTN23-025ALU Fusion CAD File](cad/RCTN23-025ALU_v51.f3d)
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#### BOM N23 025ALU
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Type | Size | QTY | Where Used | McMaster PN
--- | --- | --- | --- | --- 
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SHCS | M3x12 | 8 | Connecting Lap and Tab Aluminum, and Belt Blocks |  
FHCS | M3x12 | 8 | Nice option for flush-mounting things | 
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SHCS | M3x35 | 2 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 91292A033
SHCS | M3x45 | 2 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 91292A025
Belleville Washer | 3.1mm ID | 12 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 96445K157
Locknut | M3, Nylon | 2 | Used *only* when pre-loading bearing rollers | 90576A102
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Locknut | M5, Nylon | 4 | Connecting Nema 23 Motor | 93625A200
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SHCS | M5x10 | 1 | Connecting Nema 23 Motor |  
SHCS | M5x16 | 3 | Nema 23 Motor through arcs | 
Shoulder Screw | 8mm Shoulder x 8mm x M6 | 10 | Guide Roller Shaft | 92981A198
Shoulder Screw | 8mm Shoulder x 16mm x M6 | 2 | Belt Guide Roller Shaft | 92981A202

### N23 / 0.25" ALU Parts

What | Spec | QTY | Where Used | Link
--- | --- | --- | --- | --- 
608ZZ Bearings | 8x22x7 | 14 | Rollers | [VXB 10](https://www.vxb.com/608ZZ-Shielded-8x22x7-Miniature-Bearing-Pack-of-10-p/608zz10.htm), [VXB 1000](https://www.vxb.com/Wholesale-Lot-of-1000-608ZZ-Ball-Bearing-p/608zz-wholesale.htm)
GT2 Belt | 10mm Wide, Length Dependent | 2 | Belt! | [Amazon](https://www.amazon.com/Timing-Pulley-Teeth-6-35mm-Printer/dp/B07BS4DVR5/)
GT2 Pulley | 10mm Wide, Motor Bore Diameter | 1 | Transmission! | [Above, Combo](https://www.amazon.com/Timing-Pulley-Teeth-6-35mm-Printer/dp/B07BS4DVR5/)

Of course, you'll also need material. In this case, just 0.25" aluminum. I use 6061. 
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### N23 / 0.25" ALU Tools 

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A list of the (perhaps) specialty tools you'll want to have to make this gantry: 

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Tool | Where Used | McMaster PN or Link
--- | --- | ---
M3 Tap | Extensively | 
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M5 Tap | Extensively | 
M6 Tap | Shoulder Bolts | 
Countersink Bit | Flush Mounting | 
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## 90 Degree Block for 1/4" Aluminum 
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![RCTBLK-90-025ALU](images/RCTBLK-90-025ALU.png)
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[RCTBLK-90-025ALU Fusion CAD File](cad/RCTBLK-90-025ALU_v6.f3d)
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![](video/SEQ-rct-add-blk-enc.mp4)

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## Shared Purchase Parts

What | Spec | QTY | Where Used | Link
--- | --- | --- | --- | --- 
608ZZ Bearings | 8x22x7 | 14 | Rollers | [VXB 10](https://www.vxb.com/608ZZ-Shielded-8x22x7-Miniature-Bearing-Pack-of-10-p/608zz10.htm), [VXB 1000](https://www.vxb.com/Wholesale-Lot-of-1000-608ZZ-Ball-Bearing-p/608zz-wholesale.htm)
GT2 Belt | 10mm Wide, Length Dependent | 2 | Belt! | [Amazon](https://www.amazon.com/Timing-Pulley-Teeth-6-35mm-Printer/dp/B07BS4DVR5/)
GT2 Pulley | 10mm Wide, Motor Bore Diameter | 1 | Transmission! | [Above, Combo](https://www.amazon.com/Timing-Pulley-Teeth-6-35mm-Printer/dp/B07BS4DVR5/)
Stepper Motor | NEMA23 x52mm | 1 | Torque ! | [StepperOnline](https://www.omc-stepperonline.com/hybrid-stepper-motor/nema-23-bipolar-18deg-09-nm-1275ozin-2a-36v-57x57x52mm-4-wires-23hs20-2004s.html)
Stepper Motor | NEMA23 x76mm | -or | Torque ! | [StepperOnline](https://www.omc-stepperonline.com/hybrid-stepper-motor/nema-23-bipolar-18deg-19nm-269ozin-28a-32v-57x57x76mm-4-wires-23hs30-2804s.html)

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# REF

Find [Open Assemblies Hardware Reference](https://github.com/jakeread/openassemblies/blob/master/hardware.md) for shorthands etc. 

# Jake's Notes

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- gantries still want fully described end conditions / mounts
- belt tensioning / assembly video 
- working examples on video