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# Filtro de Celulosa para Covid - 19
<img src="images/l1_0.jpg" width="400" >
Este proyecto esta siendo desarrollado por:
[Paloma Gonzalez](http://palomagr.mit.edu/index.html) and
[José Tomás Domínguez](https://github.com/josetomas), en colaboracion con
[Arauco ](https://www.arauco.cl)y [UTFSM Fablab](https://www.fablabs.io/labs/fablabutfsm).
COVID-19 ha generado una demanda global de máscaras faciales que nuestras cadenas de suministro no han podido satisfacer. Por lo tanto,
existe una gran necesidad de crear nuevos materiales y métodos de fabricación para máscaras faciales y filtros.
Estamos trabajando en un filtro de celulosa de madera que protege de Covid - 19, y podría producirse en cualquier lugar donde
haya una fábrica de celulosa. Las fábricas de celulosa están presentes en la mayoría de las regiones del mundo.
Nuestro objetivo es modificar físicamente las láminas de pulpa de madera para lograr el rendimiento de filtrado de un filtro N95 para producir
un filtro para respiradores / máscaras / PPE para los virus corona.
[La celulosa es el material con que se fabrica el papel tissue que tiene una capacidad de filtracion de particulas de 0.3 μm.](https://smartairfilters.com/en/blog/paper-towel-effective-against-viruses-diy-mask/)
Los virus corona son de aproximadamente 0.1 μm. Podemos modificar la compactación de las capas y
/ o el tamaño de las fibras para aumentar su capacidad de filtración / respirabilidad.
------
We are also developing a face mask which filters can be exchanged,
completely out of wood pulp to be able to use our raw material.
[Our design is based on Wasp’s design](https://www.3dwasp.com/en/3d-printed-mask-from-3d-scanning/) but we are looking to work with injection molding
and/or 2 mold processes instead of 3D printing.
It is crucial to be able to mass produce the masks.
The advantage of Wasp design is that the filters are held on the inside side of the mask.
We think that this detail would help decrease the contamination of the filters when changing them.
There are also fabric masks in which these filters could work [like this one, the HKMask](https://diymask.site/).
## Key Parameters to measure [[2](https://scientificfilters.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/BasicFiltrationConcepts.pdf)]
- Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanning_electron_microscope): This tests characterize the materials porosity. Target: < 0.1 um.
- Particle Retention Rate: "In a filtration process, the particle retention efficiency of a depth-type filter is expressed in terms of the particle size (in µm) at which a retention
level of 98% of the total number of particles initially challenging the filter is
obtained". Target: 95%
- Preassure Drop: The higher the pressure drop, the harder it is to breathe. Target: <5.82 [mmH20] at a flow rate of 32 [L/min].
All this tests could be replaced by a DOP ([DOP Guideline](http://www.eacoontario.com/pdf/2013/Revised%20August%2027%202013%20DOP%20PAO%20HEPA%20IntegrityTesting%20Procedure.pdf)).
## Key Steps:
- SEM Measurements, measure the porosity of the wood pulp sheets; it must be >0.1um
- Particle counting measurement, measure filtering capacity of the material, the ideal scenario will be an N95 filtering capacity.
- In case the material's porosity is bigger than 0.1um or the filtering capacity isn’t enough, Arauco is going to modify their manufacturing process to get a tighter material, or we are going to test a Electrospinning machine.
- Make the material Hydrophobic.
-Industrial production.
## Filter Development
Wood pulp sheets have the following disadvantages:
Hydrophilic, absorbs any liquid very fast so it could have a lower life expectancy and could absorb contaminated droplets, this can be controlled through design or modifying the material properties.
Due to air flow, the user could inhale wood pulp fibers, we are adding wood pulp based fabrics to act as a filter. It’s relevant to point out that wood fibers aren’t toxic, you just can’t digest them.
FDM 3D printed masks are slow to produce and have a porosity bigger than >0.1um, we are looking to develop the plastic parts of the mask through injection molding.
## Current Development
<img src="images/l5_0.jpg" width="400" >
We are working in a version made from wood pulp instead of 3D printing to be mass produced with compression molds similar to egg boxes.
The filter frame is still 3D printed. Our next step is to Incorporate it in the mold and make it with wood pulp.
### Raw Material
Celulose comes in letter size sheets, 21.59 cm. X 27.94 cm with a thikness of 1mm.
<img src="images/l2_1.jpg" width="200" >
<img src="images/l2_0.jpg" width="200" >
We are also working with wood pulp based fabrics, that will act as filter of big size wood pulp fibers than could be detached from the filter due to air flow:
<img src="images/l2_2.jpg" width="400" >
### Fabricating the filter
Due to the density of the cellulose sheets the material is not breathable. We succeeded in testing the feasibility of making it breathable. We pulverized it and compacted it into a breathable filter of 5mm thickness. The filter has three layers, the first and last of fabric to isolate fibers and possibly waterproof the pulp.
The filter needs to be tested to evaluate its filtering capacity and porosity.
<img src="images/l1_2.jpg" width="200" >
<img src="images/l6.jpg" width="200" >
### Assembling the mask
We are working with the face mask design by [Wasp](https://www.3dwasp.com/en/3d-printed-mask-from-3d-scanning/)
<img src="images/l3_1.jpg" width="400" >
When everything is already manufactured
<img src="images/l1_1.jpg" width="400" >
We assemble the parts:
<img src="images/l3_2.jpg" width="400" >
And get a finished face mask with a replaceable wood pulp based filter
<img src="images/l1_3.jpg" width="400" >
## Molding
In order to advance into mass production of the mask, we have been developing a 3D printed wood pulp mold, based on [Startasys](https://www.stratasysdirect.com/technologies/fused-deposition-modeling/fdm-tools-paper-pulp-molding).
### Wood Pulp Molds
<img src="images/M_1.PNG" width="400" >
In the image above [[3](https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/pts.2289)] you can see how Wood Pulp Molds work.
The first part, called the moving half, of the mold is made from a solid material, and is the one that press the second part.
The second part, called the fixed half, has two different layers, this allows the water to flow through the fiber network, into a porous material, to the drainage channels (as you can see in the image above); this allows the mold to release water and keep its final form.
### First iteration
#### The Mold for Pulp Molding
You can find the mold .stl files in the following [link](https://github.com/FabLabUTFSM/WoodPulp-Filter---COVID-19/tree/master/3D_Models).
<img src="images/M_2.jpg" width="400" >
(Models M_1 correspond to the iteration)
#### Material Formula
We used the following foormula for the first test:
- Pulverized unbleached wood pulp: 11.3 grams
It has to have the following texture:
<img src="images/M_3.jpg" width="400" >
- Water: 269 grams
- Polyvinyl acetate: 66.3 grams.
#### Results
In the following pictures you can see the first results we got:
<img src="images/M_4.jpg" width="200" > <img src="images/M_5.jpg" width="400" >
#### Conclusions
- After 12 hours of drying, the material was wet. We will improve the geometry and introduce porosity that expells the water out.
- The porous material layer of the fixed half must have a 1 mm thickness.
- We must add drain channels to the fixed half.
- The material is getting a good resolution.
- The cylinders for the respiration holes must be extended.
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