Commit 59c5d475 authored by Patricia Stathatou's avatar Patricia Stathatou
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parent bfbb0c56
......@@ -11,6 +11,9 @@ Patricia
- Figure 2: The expected trend of medical and MSW waste flow durong the pandemic ([Klemes et al., 2020](
- China has the most data on this issue:
- Amount of MSW in large and medium cities was reduced by 30% during the disease outbreak.
- However, the generation of medical waste increased sharply - by 370% in Hubei Province, with a high proportion of plastics.
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*Waste management & footprint*
- Effective management of biomedical & healthcare waste requires appropriate identification, collection, separation, storage, transportation, treatment/disinfection and disposal/recovery.
- Figure 3: The main waste handling approaches for contaminated waste during COVID-19 (Klemes et al., 2020)
- Incineration and steam sterilisation are the most common pathways for thermal treatment of hazardous medical waste.
- Plastics have calorific values comparable to conventional fuels (Gasoline: 43 / LNG: 47 MJ/kg).
- Figure 4: The calorific value of plastic and the exhaust gas released by incinerating MSW, hazardous waste and sewage sludge (Klemes et al., 2020).
- The energy embodied in plastic waste can be recovered if adequately managed.
- Figure 5 shows the typical energy consumption in the life cycle of plastic products (withouth considering the transportation stage).
- The embodied energy in the plastic can be recovered through primary and mechanical recycling, energy recovery and possibly chemical recycling (depolymerisation). The energy required for
- The concept of Plastic Waste Footprint (PWF) can be used as a metric for environmental burdens, to compare alternative solutions on plastic production & waste management: the total mass of plastic waste generated by a process/product or service minus the amount of plastic avoided /reused / recycled / reprocessed.
- Further research:
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