Commit 9c941942 authored by Zach Fredin's avatar Zach Fredin

Update pulseox.md

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Pulse oxygenation devices use several LEDs to measure pulse rate and blood oxygen content. The LEDs are tuned to specific wavelengths corresponding to the absorbance band of oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin; by cycling through the LEDs rapidly the device compensates for skin differences and ambient light, returning saturation and pulse rate.
## Background
- overview of pulse oxymetry physics and engineering challenges from 1989: Tremper, Kevin K., and Steven J. Barker. "Pulse oximetry." Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists 70.1 (1989): 98-108.
- engineering challenges identified
- LED center wavelength consistency
- the other two hemoglobins (MetHb and COHb)
- signal artifacts: physical movement, signal:noise ratio, ambient light
- calibration curve accuracy
- lots of IP from Masimo Corp
- https://patents.google.com/patent/US7280858B2/en (active thru 2025)
- https://patents.google.com/patent/US6697656B1/en (exp 6/2020)
- https://patents.google.com/patent/US6684090B2/en (exp)
- earlier overview: Yelderman, Mark, and William New. "Evaluation of pulse oximetry." Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists 59.4 (1983): 349-351.
- changing LED wavelengths with temp: ~0.1 nm/C: Reynolds, K. J., et al. "Temperature dependence of LED and its theoretical effect on pulse oximetry." British journal of anaesthesia 67.5 (1991): 638-643.
- "... equation (2) is only an approximation and pulse oximeters are usually calibrated empirically using data obtained by inducing hypoxia in healthy volunteers."
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