Commit 015de3ad authored by Jake Read's avatar Jake Read

new controller, compare and test

parent 6f4d5ccc
......@@ -2,10 +2,14 @@
The DEX is an open source piece of materials testing equipment. The machine can be manufactured by anyone with access to a laser cutter with at least a 24x12" bed, or a milling machine of similar or larger size, and nearly any FDM 3D Printer. A bill of materials of purchased parts required to complete the machine is below, totaling some ~ $500 USD.
The machine uses a NEMA 23 stepper motor and a small ball screw to exert force on samples, and any off the shelf load-cell to measure stress. At the lab, we use [squidworks](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/squidworks/squidworks) controllers to operate the machine, but rolling a controller with an off-the-shelf Arduino should not be an exceptionally cumbersome task.
The machine uses a NEMA 23 stepper motor and a small ball screw to exert force on samples, and any off the shelf load-cell to measure stress. At the lab, we use [squidworks](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/squidworks/squidworks) controllers to operate the machine, but a standalone controller written for Arduino and with a JS frontend is [here](controller).
![dex](images/2020-02-11_dex-render.png)
![dex-alive](images/2020-07-12_dex-on-desk-01.jpg)
![control](images/2020-07-11_dex-tools.png)
## Operating Principle
A [stress - strain plot](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress%E2%80%93strain_curve) is a very useful piece of information when characterizing materials.
......@@ -14,6 +18,13 @@ A [stress - strain plot](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress%E2%80%93strain_cur
To generate these curves, the DEX slowly pulls samples (normally some 'dogbone' shape [below](#testing-notes)) apart, while measuring the amount that it stretches (~ the strain), and the amount of force it exerts as it is stretched (~ the stress). These types of machine are common in industry, often referred to by their leading brand name 'Instron', or as 'Universal Testing Machines' (UTM).
## Comparison to the Instron 4411
I compared results from the most recent DEX build to the Instron 4411 we have in the lab. Some errors still exist: it could be the case that the load cell needs better calibration: my largest calibration weights are near 2kg, but these loads approach 8kgf. I'm not sure how much nonlinearity exists in COTS (and cheap) loadcells like this, but I have *heard* they are *fairly* linear, so certainly we can do better than heresay. There is certainly some flex in the machine itself, but much less than earlier versions. To improve this, the DEX can be fabricated in Phenolic or some other composite, rather than Acrylic as used here. Finally, fixturing could be greatly improved, I believe some creep exists in the jaws as well. I have ordered some parts to test better (off the shelf) steel clamps.
![dt1](data/2020-07-12_compare-dex-4411/2020-07-12_compare-dex-4411-01.png)
![dt2](data/2020-07-12_compare-dex-4411/2020-07-12_compare-dex-4411-02.png)
## Hardware
### CAD
......@@ -55,7 +66,13 @@ Part numbers are from [McMaster Carr](http://mcmaster.com) unless otherwise link
Here, I list Acrylic Sheet as the main chassis material. With acrylic, the machine can be manufactured easily on a laser cutter. However, it should also be possible to build the DEX with different sheet material. Lately, I have been using Phenolic as a chassis material: it can be milled on a ShopBot or similar router, and performs much better than Acrylic, with around 11GPA flexural strength (vs. Acrylic's ~ 3GPA). Acrylic is best bonded with Acrylic Cement, a solvent that welds the plastic to itself. Phenolic is best bonded with a two-part epoxy: I use a 20 minute working life epoxy, and nearly any type will do.
## Control and Interface
## Control and Interface: Standalone
I recently built a [standalone controller](controller) for this thing, it's written in Arduino and vanilla JS for Node (to serve the app and connect to the machine) and the Browser.
![dex-alive](images/2020-07-12_dex-on-desk-02.jpg)
## Control and Interface: Squidworks
DEX is designed to run a [squidworks](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/squidworks/squidworks) controller. The `dex` branches of [cuttlefish](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/squidworks/cuttlefish) and [ponyo](https://gitlab.cba.mit.edu/squidworks/ponyo) contain code that is known to work with the machine. For more info on the controllers, please consult those repositories. In all, controlling the machine can be achieved in any number of ways, on needs only to control one stepper motor and read one load cell.
......
......@@ -69,6 +69,7 @@ uint16_t rl = 0;
uint16_t one = 1;
int32_t stepsToTake = 0;
int32_t position = 0;
uint8_t retries = 0;
void loop() {
stepper.run();
......@@ -78,12 +79,18 @@ void loop() {
cobsSerial->getPacket(&pck, &pl);
switch(pck[0]){
case DEXKEY_LOADCELLREADING:
while(!loadcell.is_ready()){
delay(100);
retries ++;
if(retries > 10) break;
}
if(loadcell.is_ready()){
int32_t reading = loadcell.get_value(10);
retries = 0;
int32_t reading = loadcell.get_value(5);
rl = 0;
res[rl ++] = DEXKEY_LOADCELLREADING;
ts_writeInt32(reading, res, &rl);
debugmsg("reads: " + String(reading));
//debugmsg("reads: " + String(reading));
} else {
debugmsg("loadcell not ready");
}
......@@ -97,7 +104,7 @@ void loop() {
stepsToTake = 0;
one = 1;
ts_readInt32(&stepsToTake, pck, &one);
debugmsg("to take steps: " + String(stepsToTake));
//debugmsg("to take steps: " + String(stepsToTake));
stepper.runToNewPosition(position + stepsToTake);
position += stepsToTake;
rl = 0;
......
......@@ -84,12 +84,16 @@ let DEXKEY_MOTORENABLE = 16
let dex = {}
let lsq = new LeastSquares()
let oldReadings = [[25, 14854, 29649, 44453, 74061, 103695],
[0, -0.100, -0.200, -0.300, -0.500, -0.700]]
let calibReadings = [[1,2,3], [1,2,3]]
let newReadings = [
[42, 255872, 209341, 171922, 141727, 108767, 79558, 48830, 30461],
[0, -16.8854, -13.7983, -11.3386, -9.3394, -7.1638, -5.243, -3.2144, -2.009]]
//[0, 1723g, 1408g, 1157, 953, 731, 535, 328, 205]] // (gf)
// donate some x, y readings to calibrate the least squares
// here this was observed integer outputs from the amp, and load applied during those readings
lsq.setObservations(
[[25, 14854, 29649, 44453, 74061, 103695],
[0, -0.100, -0.200, -0.300, -0.500, -0.700]])
lsq.setObservations(newReadings)
// loadcells need to be calibrated,
dex.readLoadcell = () => {
return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
......@@ -185,7 +189,7 @@ dex.step = (mm) => {
}
// calculate for spmm,
let steps = Math.floor(- dex.spmm * mm)
console.log('STEPS', steps)
// console.log('STEPS', steps)
let req = new Uint8Array(5)
req[0] = DEXKEY_STEPS
TS.write('int32', steps, req, 1, true)
......@@ -201,7 +205,7 @@ dex.step = (mm) => {
}
} // end recv
let moveTime = (Math.abs(mm / dex.maxspeed) + 5) * 1000
console.log('TIME', moveTime)
//console.log('TIME', moveTime)
setTimeout(() => {
rejected = true
reject('timeout')
......
......@@ -173,7 +173,7 @@ export default function DEXUI(){
// testing
// test-by
let testStep = $('<input type="text" value="0.01">').addClass('inputwrap').get(0)
let testStep = $('<input type="text" value="0.005">').addClass('inputwrap').get(0)
setPosition(testStep, 50, ypos += yinc + 10)
// start / stop testing
let testButton = $('<div>').addClass('button').get(0)
......
......@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ import { PerformanceObserver, performance } from 'perf_hooks'
import { TS } from '../core/ts.js'
let LOGPHY = true
let LOGPHY = false
// -------------------------------------------------------- WSS VPort
......
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Time,Extension,Load
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16.60000,0.82900,85.63000
16.70000,0.83400,84.56000
16.80000,0.83900,83.48000
16.90000,0.84400,82.28000
17.00000,0.84900,81.07000
17.10000,0.85400,79.59000
17.20000,0.85900,77.98000
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17.70000,0.88400,70.87000
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18.50000,0.92400,65.10000
18.60000,0.92900,64.56000
18.70000,0.93400,64.29000
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19.50000,0.97400,62.28000
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20.50000,1.02400,61.07000
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24.80000,1.23900,59.19000
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